Thursday, 24 May 2012

Defamation - a Crime or Not in Timor-Leste? A Legal Analysis

Original Citation: 2009 ETLJ 4 Defamation - a Crime or Not in Timor-Leste? A Legal Analysis by Nomen Nescio (a pseudonym)
Note: This is an English translation of an article written by an East Timorese lawyer in Tetum. The author did not wish to be identified. The English translation has been edited by the editor of the East Timor Law Journal. The original Tetum text follows.

Defamation was confirmed as a criminal offence in Timor Leste in 2003 in the case of a non-national versus Suara Timor Lorosa’e (a leading daily newspaper) where the court decided in favor of the non national. As a consequence, STL had to pay a lot of money to that person. This issue was also debated when the previous government tried to criminalise defamation through a draft of a new Penal Code that up to this day continues to be a “draft” waiting to be approved in the coming months. At that time everybody, civil societies, academics, Catholic Church and some international organisations did not agree with the plan of the previous government to criminalize defamation. That is why the President of the Republic (current Prime minister) invited everybody including the Judges of the Court of Appeal to an open discussion or debate on Televizaun Timor Leste (TVTL) and as a result the draft Penal Code is still pending (Thank God!).
However on the other hand, the Court of Appeal made a decision that “defamation” is still considered to be a criminal offence only because the executive order that was issued by the late Sergio Veira de Mello (during the United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor period), was not on a par with other applicable laws or regulations in force in Timor-Leste. The last decision of the Court of Appeal, at that time headed by the President Claudio Ximenes, became “jurisprudence” in Timor-Leste. This Court of Appeal decision became a precedent for the Judges in dealing with cases of defamations issues.
Lately some people have complained to the police or the public prosecutor about defamation, as they think that they has been defamed through the media, and demand that their cases be taken to court seeking justice for their honour and dignity.
A simple question for the issue of defamation whether the decision of the Court of Appeal is correct or not? Or in simple words: is defamation a crime or not in Timor-Leste? This question will be weighed having regard to the legal bases and also by making a simple analysis of the defamation issue.
Before making a little analysis into this issue, I would like to bring you back to the trial case of a militia member in 2004. The case was Prosecutor vs Armando dos Santos. The Dili District Court (presided over by some Timorese Judges) sentenced the defendant Armando dos Santos based on the Indonesian Penal Code. At that time the prosecution also ‘used’ articles stated in the Indonesian Penal Code to charge Armando dos Santos.
When the case was appealed to the Court of Appeal, Claudio Xinemes who was the presiding judge used the Portuguese Penal Code to sentence the defendant Armando dos Santos.
Immediately a conflicting law was created at that time. Who was wrong?
Luckily, the National parliament immediately intervened and made an interpretation of the UNTAET Regulation 1/1999 where it says that: the subsidiary law applicable in Timor-Leste is the Indonesian law and “not” Portuguese laws. Lastly, the interpretation for the subsidiary law became clear, and the Court of Appeals’ Judge Claudio Ximenes, interpretation was completely wrong!
Now how about another decision of Judge Claudio Ximenes to interpret the issue of defamation in Timor-Leste? As for  the interpretation of Judge Claudio Ximenes of the “executive order” saying that its level or category is not the same as law, is it right or wrong?
The resolution of The Security Council to establish UNTAET
I would like to invite you all to go back to the UNTAET mandate immediately after the restoration of Timor-Leste’s independence on 20th May 2002.

Security Council resolution number 1272 empowers UNTAET with the following three powers: a) legislative power, b) executive power, and c) judicial administrative powers.
These 3 powers were given to the special representative of the secretary general of the United Nations in Timor-Leste who was at the time the late Sergio Vieira de Mello. The late Sergio Vieira de Mello was the representative of the United Nations with great powers given by the “Security Council. The Security Council which created all international instruments, which many countries ratified and implemented in the whole world, all have come from the Security Council of the United Nations. Like the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and all the international conventions ratified by Timor-Leste, they became an instrument higher than the normal law of each individual country.

The Constitution of Timor-Leste provides, inter alia, as follows:
Article 9
(International law)
1. The legal system of East Timor shall adopt the general or customary principles of international law.
2. Rules provided for in international conventions, treaties and agreements shall apply in the internal legal system of East Timor following their approval, ratification or accession by the respective competent organs and after publication in the official gazette.
3. All rules that are contrary to the provisions of international conventions, treaties and agreements applied in the internal legal system of East Timor shall be invalid.
The provisions of paragraphs (1) and (2) of Article 9 are very clear. That is why when international conventions and treaties have been approved, ratified or adhered to and that has been published in the Official Gazette (Jornal da Republica), they have the force of law in the country. Therefore, laws or decrees laws that the Parliament or Government have made must be in harmony with the spirit of international conventions, as well as with the Constitution. We  have an obligation to bow and to follow the order that the international instruments have constituted because we ourselves have a commitment when we wanted to ratified these international instruments.
Let’s go back to the issue of the Resolution of the Security Council in regards to UNTAET. During the UNTAET time, Timor-Leste was not yet a nation. It did not have its own sovereignty. We were in a transitional phase. Because of this, one of UNTAET’s mission objectives was to establish a Constituent Assembly to prepare Timor-Leste’s Constitution for the Republic (currently in use) as well as independence. This shows the depth of the powers that were given by the Security Council to UNTAET. They came from highest organs of the United Nations.
With these three  powers bestowed on the late Sergio Viera de Mello as the Transitional Administrator, he was the head of executive, legislative and judicial administration powers during the UNTAET time.
Simply speaking, the late Sergio Viera de Mello alone was the “legislator”, executive or head of the transitional Government, and was also to oversee judicial administration.
With these powers or duties as the legislator, all the UNTAET Regulations and other law-making instruments needed was his signature. In addition, UNTAET did not differentiate the legal norms issued by UNTAET. Whether they were in the form of regulations, executive orders, directives or notifications, they all emanated from the same source of power. Furthermore, there was no UNTAET law that declared a hierarchy of laws at different levels of legal force and power.
It was only after independence that we made a law regarding the sources of the law. Law number 10/2003 on the interpretation of Article 1 of Law no. 2/2002 of the 7 August on the  Sources of the Law provides:

Section 2
Sources of law
1. Legislation is the only immediate source of law in Timor-Leste.
2. Legislation is generic provisions issued by the competent organs of the State;
3. The sources of law in the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste are:
(a) The Constitution of the Republic;
(b) Laws emanated from the National Parliament and from the Government of the Republic;

It can not be disputed that the term “legal instruments” in Article 2(c) includes executive orders and all other law-making instruments issued by UNTAET under the hand of the late former Transitional Administrator. They were all laws for all purposes.
What was the position of UNTAET in regard to defamation?
The objective of the executive order 2/2002 issued by UNTAET was to avoid defamation being considered as a criminal offence then and now.
The Indonesian Penal Code has been applied since the start of UNTAET, (and it has been applied up until this very minute) as a subsidiary law. In the opinion of UNTAET, the articles in the Indonesian Penal Code starting from article 310-321 regarding defamation could not be applied in Timor-Leste because was against human rights principles and also contrary to civil and political rights.

That is why executive order 2/2002 states that:
With immediate effect, the conduct defined in Chapter XVI (Defamation) of the Indonesian Penal Code, which consists of Articles 310 to 321, is of non criminal nature in East Timor.  Under no circumstances those articles can serve as a basis for any criminal accusation by the Prosecutor-General. People allegedly defamed are limited to civil actions and only to where such repairs can be provided in a future UNTAET Regulation).
The Transitional Administrator’s powers were plenary and certainly extended to altering the applicable Indonesian law as this Executive Order does. The alteration did not have to be in any particular form such as a regulation.
Constitution of the Republic of Timor-Leste
What does our Constitution of the Republic says about the laws and norms issued by UNTAET? Also, what does the Constitution says about “defamation”?
Article 9.3 of the Constitution states that all rules that are contrary to the provisions of international conventions, treaties and agreements applied in the internal legal system of East Timor shall be invalid.
So, those norms that have been approved by the Parliament or by the Government must be harmonised so as not to contravene any international convention or agreement. They must not be applied without being so harmonised. So the question is does the law as interpreted and applied by the Court of Appeal really follow the spirit of the Constitution and the international conventions that have been ratified?
The same goes for the executive order which was issued during the time of UNTAET on the 22 March 2002: is it still applicable or not? ? Section 165 of the Constitution provides that:

(Previous Law)
Laws and regulations in force in East Timor shall continue to be applicable to all matters except to the extent that they are inconsistent with the Constitution or the principles contained therein.
One thing the Constitution wants to say here is that the laws and regulations currently in use in Timor-Leste continue to be applicable, as long as they have not been amended or revoked. The laws and regulations referred to are the Indonesian laws as the subsidiary laws and also the Regulations issued by UNTAET. Legal diplomas or regulations or all laws which applied after the 22 March 2002 continue to be applicable only for so long as there has not been a written amendment, or it has been revoked or voided by the Tribunal or the Parliament. The decision of the Court of Appeal on the defamation issue was only for that case which at that time was before the court. The Court of Appeal is yet to issue a “special” decision to specifically deal with the “executive order” and so the Court of Appeal has not “voided” that executive order. Nor has the Parliament revoked or amended by publication in the official Gazette. Only the Court of Appeal and the Parliament can “void” or “revoke” or “amend” any laws so that means that the executive orders and legal diplomas which have not been repealed, are still applicable.
This means that defamation can not be processed as a criminal action, it can only be prosecuted as a civil action. The executive order decriminalized defamation.
Impact of erroneous jurisprudence regarding the defamation  issue
On the 20th May 2002 Timor-Leste became an independent sovereign nation. At the same time, Timor-Leste became a member of the United Nations and began to ratify conventions and international instruments that were important. Since these conventions are ratified Timor-Leste is obliged to submit an annual report to the United Nations regarding the implementation of these conventions.
The issue of defamation will be the topic in the national debate in Timor-Leste with ideas for or against it and will be highly criticised in the international forums. Since 2002 to 2009, the question of defamation is continuously raised and has became like a “virus”, because there are many who do not agree with these norms. Some believe that in the current situation, the criminalization of defamation favors more those in power than a Timorese citizen  or a citizen of another country.

This year, 2009, a member of the current government is taking court action against a local journalist. That Minister is  alleging defamation and this has been a interesting topic for people in Timor-Leste and specially for people abroad.

The President of the Republic in his official visit to New Zealand a few month ago was met with a protest from journalists who follow the daily political situation in Timor-Leste. Many people have started to send letters of concern to the government and the President of the Republic.
More important, the implementation report of the conventions which Timor-Leste so bravely ratified since 2002, will be heavily criticized and there may even be a possibility  that some people may take this case to the Human Rights session in Geneva if the government does not give serious attention to this matter. (Every year individuals or groups can make interventions in Geneva regarding violations of human rights and violations of legal civil and political rights). All conventions which Timor-Leste has ratified forbid any violations of the people’s democratic rights.

The executive order issued by Sergio de Mello was based on the powers received from the resolution of the United Nations Security Council to establish UNTAET. Immediately after the restoration of independence of Timor Leste, UNTAET Regulations, Directives, Executive Orders and Notifications, issued by UNTAET were based on these powers.
As a member of the United Nations, Timor-Leste has made various agreements with the United Nations through the ratifications of international conventions. As a consequence, Timor-Leste must bow and comply with the commitments made with the United Nations to implement these conventions properly. If these conventions are not properly implemented, Timor-Leste is in violation of the principal “pacta sunt servanda” which is universal. The principal “Pacta sunt servanta” (Pacta sunt servanta comes from Latin; in Indonesian: “janji harus ditepati”.)
In the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, 1969, Preamble 3, this principal is also stated in Article 26:
“Every treaty in force is binding upon the parties to it and must be preformed by them in good faith)”.
All parties (the countries) can not use internal norms as reasons for failing to the implementation as stated in the treaties. These provisions can be found in the principal that talks about “peremptory norm of general international law” (or jus cogens). Normally this principal is more connected to issues of civil agreements. However, the legal system in Timor-Leste is “civil law system/sistema civilista” and that is why we have a great obligation to bow and to follow the international norms that we have signed with commitment.

Published in the East Timor Law Journal on 13 April 2009


Original Tetum Version

2009 ETLJ 4 (T) Kriminaliza Difamasaun iha Timor Leste, bele ka lae? Análiza legal ida husi Nomen Nescio (NN)


Difamasaun sai tiha hanesan ofensa kriminal hahu iha Timor Leste iha tinan 2003 nia laran bainhira mosu kazu ida nebe ema estrangeiro kontra STL no ikus mai ema ne’e manan iha tribunal. Ho konsekwensia Jornal STL tenki selu osan lubuk ida ba ema estrangeiru ne’e. Diskusaun ba asuntu hanesan sai rame liu tan bainhira Governu anterior koko atu kriminaliza difamasaun liu husi esbosu Codigo Penal foun nebe to’o ohin loron sei ho status ‘draft’ hela no hein atu aprova iha fulan hirak nia laran’. Iha tempu neba ema hotu-hotu, sociedades sivil, akademiku, Igreja Katolika, organijasaun internasional balu, la konkorda ho Governu anterior nia planu nebe hakarak kriminaliza difamasaun. Tamba ne’e, Presidente Republika Xanana Gusmao (Primeiru Ministro Atual) konvida ema hotu-hotu, inklui Juizes Tribunal Rekursu, halo diskusaun ka debate direitamente liu husi TVTL ho resultadu esbosu kodigu penal ne’e sei pendenti hela (Gracas a Deus!).

Maibe iha parte seluk, Tribunal Rekursu hasai desijaun ida katak  ‘difamasaun’ sei konsidera nafatin ba ofensa krimi tan de’it ‘executive order’ ne’ebe matebian Sergio Viera de Mello (iha tempu UNTAET) hasai, ninia ‘level’ katanya la hanesan ho Leis ka Regulamentu. Desijaun Tribunal Rekursu, altura neba Presidente Claudio Ximenes, hasai ikus mai sai tiha hanesan ‘jurisprudensia’ iha Timor Leste. Ho konsekwensia mak Juizes sira sei hare tuir ba desijaun nebe Tribunal Rekursu hasai tiha ona, ka sai hanesan jurisprudensia ida ba asuntu difamasaun nian.

Ikus-ikus ne’e ema balu hahu hatama keixa ba polisia ka Prokurador konaba difamasaun, nebe tuir sira nia hanoin katak ema balu desfama sira liu husi meius publiku nian, tamba ne’e sira ijiji atu prosesa sira nia kazu ba Tribunal atu hetan justisa ba sira nia onra ka dignidade.

Pergunta simples ba asuntu difamasaun mak ne’e; Desijaun tribunal rekursu konaba difamasaun ne’e los duni ka lae? Ou ho liafuan simples karik atu dehan de’it; kriminaliza difamasaun iha Timor Leste bele ka lae? Pergunta ida ne’e sei tetu tuir baze legal nomos halo analiza simples ida ba asuntu difamasaun nian.

Molok halo analiza oit oan ba asuntu ida ne’e hau hakarak dada fali sani nain sira nia hanoin ba julgamentu kazu milisias ida nebe akontese iha tinan 2004. Kazu ho naran Prokurador vs Armando dos Santos. Tribunal distrital Dili (nebe prezidi ka lidera husi Juiz Timor oan balu) hakotu sentenca ba arguido Armando dos Santos bazeia ba Kodigu Penal Indonesia nian, prokurador ka ministeriu publiku mos altura neba ‘uja’ artigu hirak nebe iha Kodigu Penal Indonesia hodi akuja Armando dos Santos. Bainhira kaju ne’e rekursu ba Tribunal rekursu, Presidente Claudio Ximenes nebe lidera sesaun iha Tribunal rekursu nian ‘uja’ fali Kodigu Penal Portugal hodi hatun sentensa ba arguido Armando dos Santos. Teki-tekir hamosu kedas konflitu lei iha tempu neba. Se mak sala? Sorti bot, Parlamentu Nasional anterior halo kedas intervensaun no interpretasaun ida ba Regulamentu UNTAET 1/1999 nebe dehan katak ’lei subsidiariu nebe aplika iha Timor Leste mak refere ba Lei Indonesia nian, ‘laos’ Leis Portugal. Ikus mai, interpretasaun ba lei subsidiariu sai klaru kedas, e Tribunal Rekursu, Juiz Claudio Ximenes ninia ‘interpretasaun’ totalmente sala!. Agora oin nusa konaba desijaun ida tan husi Juiz Claudio nian hodi interpreta asuntu difamasaun iha Timor Leste? Tuir Juiz Claudio ninia interpretasaun ba ‘ordem executivo’ ka executive order dehan katak ninia ‘level’ ka ‘kategoria’ la hanesan ho lei, tebes ka lae?.

Rezulusaun Konsellu Siguransa hodi hari’i UNTAET

Hau hakarak konvida tan sani nain sira atu hanoin fila fali mandatu nebe UNTAET simu molok Timor Leste hetan ninia restorasaun independencia iha loron 20 Maio 2002.

Resolusaun Konsellu Siguransa Nasoes Unidas nian ho numeru 1272 nebe estabelese UNTAET ho poder tolu mak hanesan; a) poder legislativu, b) poder executivu, ho  c) administrasaun Judicial nian.

Husi poder tolu ne’e ema nebe altura neba sai hanesan reprezentante spesial ba Sekretariu Geral Nasoes Unidas iha Timor Leste mak matebian Sergio Viera de Mello. Matebian Sergio Mello hanesan ‘reprezentante’ Nasoes Unidas ho kbi’it bot nebe simu husi ‘Konsellu Siguransa’. Resolusaun Konsellu Siguransa nebe hamosu Instrumentu internasional hotu-hotu, nebe pais barak ratifika ka aplika iha mundu rai klaran, mesak sai husi Konsellu Siguransa Nasoes Unidas nia liman laran. Hanesan Deklarasaun Universal Direitus Humanus, Konvensaun internasionais hotu-hotu nebe Timor Leste mos ratifika, sai hanesan instrumentu ida nebe as liu lei bai-bain nebe pais ida-ida produs.

Konstituisaun Republika Timor Leste Artigu 9 Simu Direitu Internasionál) 1. Orden jurídika Timór nian adopta PRINSÍPIU sira direitu internasionál jerál nian eh hotu-hotu nian. 2. Norma sira-ne’ebé mai iha konvensaun, tratadu no akordu internasionál sira-nia laran vigora iha orden lei railaran nian, wainhira hetan aprovasaun, ratifikasaun eh adezaun hosi órgaun kompetente idaidak no wainhira publika tiha ona iha jornál ofisiál. 3. Norma sira-ne’e sei la iha folin, sira latuir karik konvensaun no akordu internasionál sira-ne’ebé lei Timór nian simu tiha ona.

Iha artigu 1 ho artigu 2 koalia klaru teb-tebes, tamba ne’e bainhira norma sira ne’ebe mai husi Konvensaun ka tratadus internasional hetan ona aprovasaun, ratifikasaun ka adezaun, nomos wainhira publika tiha ona iha jornal da republika (lembaran Negara/gazette) sei sai hanesan orden iha rai laran. Nune’e Leis ka Dekretus Leis nebe Parlamentu ka Governu halo ‘tenki’ harmonia ho ispiritu konvensaun internasional, alem Konstituisaun, sira ne’e hotu. Iha obrigasaun boot ida atu hakru’uk nomos atu halo tuir orden nebe instrumentu internasional haruka, tamba ita rasik ho ita nia komitmentu hakarak ratifika instrumentu internasional hirak ne’e.

Ita fila fali ba asuntu rezulusaun konsellu siguransa nian ho asuntu UNTAET. Iha tempu UNTAET Timor Leste seidauk sai hanesan nasaun ida, seidauk iha orgaun soberanu ida, sei iha faze tranzisaun, tamba ne’e UNTAET ninia misaun ida mak hari Asembleia Konstituante atu prepara Timor Leste ninia Konstituisaun da Republika (nebe agora aplika hela) nomos Independensia ida. Atu aprofundu liu tan katak poder tolu nebe Konsellu Siguransa fo ba UNTAET mai husi orgaun Nasoes Unidas nian nebe ho nivel ida aas teb-tebes.

Ho poder tolu nebe matebian Sergio Vierra de Mello simu, nia mesak mak sai hanesan ulun boot ba poderes executivu, legislativu ho administrasaun judicial iha Timor Leste, iha tempu UNTAET nia laran. Ho lian simples karik signifika katak matebian Sergio Mello de’it mak hanesan ‘legislador’, executivu ka lidera Governu transitional, nomos tau matan ba administrasaun judisiariu nian. Ho poder ka kna’ar nu’udar legislador mak Regulamentu UNTAET hotu-hotu sei hetan de’it asinatura husi matebian Sergio. Plus, UNTAET la halo diferensa ba normas hirak nebe UNTAET hasai hanesan; Ordem Executivo, ka Regulamentu, ka sst. Dokumentu hotu-hotu konaba orden ka regulamentu hotu konsidera hanesan dokumentus legal, tamba matebian Sergio Mello mak assina bazeia ba mandate nebe mai husi resolusaun Konsellu Siguransa. Poder ‘legislador’ nebe matebian Sergio Mello simu hamosu ka produs Regulamentu ho naran ‘Regulamentu UNTAET’ nomos diplomas legais oi-oin. La iha artigu ida nebe koalia katak iha tempu UNTAET iha hirarkia leis ka iha fontes de leis, ka diferensia entre leis ho regulamentu.

Iha tempu ukun an tiha hafoin ita hamosu lei ida konaba fontes do Direito ka ho lian Indonesia ‘sumber-sumber hukum’. Lei numeru 10/2003 Interpretação do Artigo 1 da Lei No. 2/2002 de 7 de Agosto e Fontes do Direito iha Artigu 2 (c) supletivamente os regulamentus e demais diplomas legais da UNTAET enquanto nao forem revogados,...’. Iha artigu ida ne’e koalia sai momos katak ‘regulamentus e demais diplomas legais da UNTAET’...ho lian simples karik atu dehan ‘regulamentus ho diplomas legais seluk-seluk tan husi UNTAET...’ Agora Ordem executivu/executive order nebe matebian Sergio Mello ho kbiit bot husi Konsellu Siguransa Nasoes Unidas nian  ne’e diplomas legais ka lae?  Iha artigu ida ne’e fo legitima ida ba level ka kategoria ‘Regulamentus e demais diplomas legais da UNTAET’. Liafuan ‘e’ ka ‘ho’ ka ‘dan’ ka ‘and’ ne’e signifika katak rua-rua ne’e hanesan, la iha ida mak bot liu ka kiik liu ida fali. Tamba ne’e Lei ida ne’e konsidera ‘Regulamentus e demais diplomas legais da UNTAET’, nebe ‘ordem executivu’ mos hanesan diplomas legais nebe reprezentante Nasoes Unidas mak hasai. Resolusaun nebe Konsellu Siguransa hasai ho forsa boot no iha kbiit atu hanesan ho Konstituisaun. Tamba ne’e bainhira ita kompara Konvensaun hotu-hotu nebe ita ratifika ho Konstituisaun da Republika, iha parte direito nian ‘kuaze’ hanesan hotu. Tamba ne’e Leis nebe Parlamentu halo, ka Dekretus leis nebe Governu aprova tenki harmonia ho Konstituisaun ho konvensaun internasional.

Normalmente iha pais hotu-hotu, buat ida naran ordem executivo ne’e hasai husi Governu. Governu hasai ordem executivo atu regula buat ruma iha area oi-oin. Executive order ka ordem executivo nebe Governu Sergio de Mello hasai hanesan mos regulamentu ida (Governu Sergio tamba poder executivu ne’e so Sergio de’it mak hetan iha tempu UNTAET) atu aplika iha tempu neba nomos agora ‘kuandu’ seidauk ‘revogados’ ka alterasaun ka annula tiha ‘ordem executivo’ ne’e.

Klaru katak ho poder nu’udar legislativu no executivu, nebe simu kbi’it husi Konsellu Siguransa Nasoes Unidas, dokumentus legal hotu nebe matebian Sergio Mello assina konsidera hanesan ‘Leis’ ka Regulamentu (liafuan ‘Leis’ husi lian Latin karik ‘Lex’, English karik ‘laws’ nebe ho magarti ida de’it mak undang-undang. Regulamentu mos husi lingua Latin ‘Regulare’ ho lian english karik ‘Regulation’, lian Portuguese ‘Regulamento’ nebe ho magarti mak ‘mengatur’ nebe Governu mak halo regulamentu atu hodi ‘mengatur’ konaba asuntu ida. Tamba ne’e iha tempu UNTAET la temi ‘Leis’ ka ‘Laws’ maibe ‘Regulamentu’ ka ‘executive order/ordem executivo’.
Oin nusa UNTAET ninia pozisaun konaba asuntu difamasaun?

Ordem executivo/Executive order 2/2002 nebe hasai husi matebian Sergio Vierra de Mello, iha tempu UNTAET.

Objectivu husi executive order 2/2002 nebe UNTAET hasai atu labele konsidera difamasaun hanesan ofensa krimi ida iha Timor Leste iha tempu neba nomos tempu agora. Tamba hahu husi tempu UNTAET Timor Leste sei aplika nafatin Kodigu Penal Indonesia (nebe to’o minutu ida ne’e sei aplika nafatin) hanesan lei subsidiariu ka hukum tambahan. Tuir UNTAET ninia opiniaun katak artigu hirak nebe regula iha Kodigu Penal Indonesia nian hahu husi artigu 310-321 konaba difamasaun labele aplika iha Timor Leste tamba kontra prinsipiu direitus humanus nomos liu-liu kontra prinsipiu direitu civil ho politika. Tamba ne’e liu husi executive order 2/2002 koalia hanesan ne’e: Com efeitos imediatos, a conduta definida no Capítulo XVI (Difamação) do Código Penal Indonésio, que compreende os artigos 310 a 321, é de natureza não criminal em Timor-Leste. Em nenhuma circunstância podem os referidos artigos servir de base para qualquer acusação criminal da parte do Procurador-Geral. As pessoas alegadamente difamadas estarão limitadas a acções civis e apenas até onde tais reparações possam estar previstas num futuro Regulamento da UNTAET’.

Konstituisaun Republika Demokratika Timor Leste

Sa ida mak ita nia Konstituisaun da Republika koalia konaba leis ka normas hirak nebe UNTAET hasai? Nomos sa ida mak Konstituisaun koalia konaba asuntu ‘difamasaun’? Artigu 9.3 Norma sira-ne’e sei la iha folin, sira latuir karik konvensaun no akordu internasionál sira-ne’ebé lei Timór nian simu tiha ona. Nune’e, norma hirak nebe Parlamentu aprova ka norma hirak nebe Governo aprova tenki tuir konvensaun no akordo internasional ninia prinsipiu no labele kontra tamba ‘Norma sira ne’e sei la iha folin,…’ katak labele aplika maibe tenki halo harmonizasaun. Artigu sira nebe sei sai hanesan jurisprudensia iha Tribunal Timor Leste, aplika los ona ga lae, kuandu tetu no hare tuir ispiritu artigu 9.3 Konstituisaun RDTL nian? Prosesa nafatin difamasaun hanesan ofensa krimi ida, tuir duni ispiritu Konstituisaun ho konvensaun internasional nebe ita ratifika ona?

Nune’e mos konaba ‘executive order’ nebe hasai iha tempu UNTAET molok loron 22 Marsu 2002, sei iha forsa nafatin ka lae? Konstituisaun da Republika mensiona asuntu ne’e iha Artigu 165 nebe hateten ‘Testu Konstituisaun ne’ebé hetan aprovasaun iha loron 22 fulan Marsu tinan 2002 Lei no regulamentu sira-ne’ebé hala’o hela iha Timór-Leste sei aplika nafatin, bainhira sira la iha alterasaun ka revogasaun ba sasán hotu-hotu ne’ebé la hasoru Lei Inan no PRINSÍPIU sira ne’ebé konsigna iha nia laran’.

Iha buat ida nebe Konstituisaun hakarak koalia iha ne’e katak… Lei no regulamentu sira-ne’ebé hala’o hela iha Timór-Leste sei aplika nafatin, bainhira sira la iha alterasaun ka revogasaun…Lei no Regulamentu nebe refere mak Leis Indonesia nebe sei sai hanesan lei subsidiariu nomos regulamentu nebe UNTAET hasai. Diplomas legais ka regulamentu ka Leis hotu-hotu nebe aplika ‘molok’ 22 Marsu 2002 sei aplika nafatin ‘KUANDU’ seidauk halo alterasaun ruma iha skrita, ka revogados ka annula husi Tribunal ka Parlamentu. Desijaun Tribunal Rekursu konaba asuntu difamasaun sai husi kaju ida nebe iha tempu neba ema hato’o rekursu hafoin tribunal deside de’it tuir kazu ne’e, Tribunal rekursu seidauk hasai desijaun ‘especial’ ida atu koalia espesifiku konaba ‘executive order’, konsidera katak Tribunal Rekursu seidauk ‘annula’, ka Parlamentu mos seidauk ‘revogados’ ka alterasaun nebe anunsiu liu husi jornal da republika. Liafuan ‘bainhira sira la iha alterasaun ka revogasaun..’ ne’e katak bainhira Tribunal Rekursu seidauk ‘annula’ ka Parlamentu Nasional atual seidauk halo revogasaun ka alterasaun liu husi lei ruma, executive order tenki aplika nafatin tamba hanesan diploma legais ida nebe sei kontinua aplika.

Lei numeru 10/2003 konaba Interpretação do Artigo 1 da Lei No. 2/2002 de 7 de Agosto e Fontes do Direito

Lei numeru 10/2003 konaba Interpretação do Artigo 1 da Lei No. 2/2002 de 7 de Agosto e Fontes do Direito (ho lian simples, lei ne’e konaba sumber-sumber hukum iha Timor Leste) Artigu 2 (c) supletivamente os regulamentus e demais diplomas legais da UNTAET enquanto nao forem revogados, assim como a legislacao Indonesia nos termos do artigo 1 da presente lei.

Artigu ida ne’e atu koalia katak bainhira Tribunal ka Parlamentu seidauk halo ‘revogados’ ba executive order,  executive order ne’e sei iha forsa juridiku nafatin ka aplika nafatin iha Timor Leste. So Tribunal hasai tiha desijaun ida atu annula tiha ka Parlamentu hasai Lei ida atu revoga tiha executive order ne’e hafoin bele dehan executive order ne’e labele duni ona implementa e bele fo fatin atu kriminaliza nafatin difamasaun bazeia ba lei subsidiariu (Kodigu Penal Indonesia). Maibe, dala ida tan! enquanto nao forem revogados,...’ regulamentus ho diplomas legais nebe hasai iha tempu UNTAET sei aplika nafatin, quer dizer labele prosesa difamasaun liu husi asaun kriminal nian, so liu husi asaun civil de’it (ka ho lian Indonesia nian karik so liu husi ‘gugatan perdata de’it’).

Impaktu husi jurisprudensia nebe sala konaba asuntu difamasaun

20 Maiu 2002 Timor Leste sai hanesan Pais independente ho orgaun soberano. Iha tinan 2002 ne’e kedas Timor Leste sai membru Nasoes Unidas no hahu ratifika Konvensaun ka instrumentu internasional hirak nebe importante. Bainhira Timor Leste ratifika konvensaun hirak ne’e, Timor Leste mos iha obrigasaun boot atu hatama relatoriu tinan-tinan ba Nasoes unidas konaba oin nusa rezultadu husi implementasaun ba konvensaun hirak ne’e.

Asuntu difamasaun sei sai hanesan topiku debates iha forum nasional (iha Timor Leste ho ideias pro-kontra) nomos sei sai hanesan kritikus liu iha forum internasional. Hahu husi tinan 2002 to’o iha tinan 2009, ema kontinua nafatin levanta kestaun difamasaun nebe sai hanesan ‘virus’ ida, tan ne’e sosiedade barak mak la konkorda ho normas hirak ne’e, basa tuir sidadaun sira nia hanoin katak ho situasaun ida hanesan Timor Leste sei fo vantajem liu ba ukun nain ‘do que’ sidadaun Timor Leste ka ema estrangeiru ruma. Realidade iha tinan 2009 ne’e,  mosu alegasaun difamasaun kontra jornalista local, nebe akuja husi membru Governu atual, sai tiha hanesan topiku interesante ba ema iha Timor Leste laran nomos liu-liu iha estrangeiru. Sua Exelensia Presidente da Republika rasik bainhira hala’o visita ofisial ida iha Nova Zelandia iha fulan hirak nia laran hasoru kedas protesta husi jornalista sira nebe loron kalan akompanya situasaun politika, nst iha Timor Leste. Ema balu hahu haruka karta aberta ba Governu nomos Presidente da Republika atu tetu didiak asuntu ida ne’e.

Maibe liu-liu tan, relatoriu konaba implementasaun konvensaun internasional nebe Timor Leste ho brani tebes ratifika hahu iha tinan 2002 sei hetan mos ‘kritikan’ maka’as, Bele mos fo posibilidade sidadaun balu atu lori kestaun ne’e sai hanesan kestaun internasional iha sesaun Direitus Humanus nian iha Genebra se karik Governu la fo atensaun seriu ba asuntu ne’e (tinan-tinan ema individual ka grupu bele halo intervensaun ba asuntu violasaun direitu humanus, violasaun direitu civil politka nst iha Genebra). Tamba konvensaun hotu-hotu nebe Timor Leste ratifika bandu teb-tebes atu limita nomos isola ema nia direitu iha pais demokratiku hanesan Timor Leste.


Executive Order/Ordem Executivo nebe matebian Sergio Mello hasai bazeia ba poder nebe simu husi resolusaun Konsellu Siguransa Nasoes Unidas nian, hodi estabelese UNTAET, molok Timor Leste hetan restorasaun independensia. Regulamentus UNTAET, Directivas, Ordens executivas, notificacoes, nebe hasai iha tempu UNTAET sai hanesan diplomas legais tamba bazeia ba kbi’it boot nebe sai husi Resolusaun Konsellu Siguransa Nasoes Unidas.

Nu’udar membru ba Nasoes Unidas nian, Timor Leste halo tiha ona agrimentu lubuk ida ho Nasoes Unidas liu husi ratifikasaun ba konvensaun internasional. Ho konsekwensia mak Timor Leste tenki hakru’uk nomos halo tuir promesa hirak nebe hato’o tiha ona ba Nasoes Unidas atu implementa Konvensoes hirak ne’e ho didiak. Se karik la implementa konvensaun hirak ne’e Timor Leste sei viola prinsipiu ‘pacta sunt servanda’ nebe existe universalmente. Prinsipiu ‘pacta sunt servanda’ ( Pacta sunt servanda ne’e mai husi lian Latin, ho lian Indonesia karik ‘janji harus ditepati’. The Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, 1969, Preambule 3, prinsipiu ne’e mos regula iha Artigu 26 “Every treaty in force is binding upon the parties to it and must be performed by them in good faith/setiap traktat adalah mengikat terhadap para pihak dan harus dilaksanakan dengan itikad baik.”). Parte hotu (pais sira) labele uja normas internal atu sai fali razaun ruma nebe failla hodi lahalo tuir normas hirak nebe tratadus haruka. Provizaun hirak ne’e bele hare iha prinsipiu nebe koalia konaba ‘“peremptory norm of general international law” (ka jus cogens). Bain-bain prinsipiu ne’e ligadu liu ba asuntu agrimentu sivil nian maibe sistema Leis iha Timor Leste nebe aplika ‘sistema civilista/civil law system’ tan ne’e iha obrigasaun boot atu hakru’uk nomos halo tuir normas internasional hirak nebe ita rasik ho komitmentu asina.




No comments:

Post a Comment



1. The Rule of Law: Theoretical, Cultural and Legal Challenges for Timor-Leste




1. Justice for Serious Crimes Committed during 1999 in Timor-Leste: Where to From Here?

2. Joint Command for PNTL & F-FDTL Undermines Rule of Law & Security Sector Reform in Timor-Leste

3. Criminal Justice in East Timor and the Constitution of East Timor

4. Commentary on the Draft Arms Law in Timor-Leste

5. Deleted


1. The Law on Political Parties (No 3/2004) & the Decision of the Timor-Leste Court of Appeal in the case of Vitor da Costa & Ors v Fretilin

2. Ethnicity, Violence & Land & Property Disputes in Timor-Leste

3. East Timor: Reconciliation & Reconstruction

4. Legal opinion on the appointment of the Prime Minister and the formation of Government in Timor-Leste

5. A legal opinion on the Formation of an Unconstitutional Government in Timor-Leste

6. Commission for Truth Friendship East Timor Competing Concepts of Justice

7. 25th of May 2006 Massacre & War Crimes in Timor-Leste


1. Some Land Tenure Issues in Post-Conflict East Timor

2. Extradition from Indonesia to East Timor & the Serious Crimes Process in East Timor 1999 - 2005

3. East Timor: Internal Security, States of Seige & Emergency: A Note on the Constitutional Provisions & the Internal Security Law 2003

4. East Timor: The Constitutional Process Governing the Dismissal of the Government

5. Guidelines for Preparation of Outgoing Requests by East Timor for International Judicial Assisstance - Extradition Requests & Letters Rogatory - A Practice Manual

6. Roles of the President and the Prime Minister in the Current Constitutional Crisis in East Timor

7. Institutions & the East Timorese Experience

8. An Early Warning System for Timor-Leste: A Framework Concept of the Need & Possibility of an Early Warning System for the Timorese People


1. The Timor-Leste Maritime Boundaries Case

2. Deleted

3. On the occasion of the International Conference on Traditional Dispute Resolution & Traditional Justice in Timor-Leste

4. General Facts on the Timor Sea & Facts on the Negotiations on a Permanent Maritime Boundary between Timor-Leste & Australia

5. Deleted

6. Morality, Religion & the Law: Abortion & Prosititution in East Timor


1. A Note on Land Rights in East Timor (Indonesian Government Regulation No 18 of 1991 on the Conversion of Land Rights in East Timor) & the Purported Suspension of Article 5 by Government Regulation No 24 of 1992

2. UNTAET Land Policy

3. Some Observations on UNTAET Regulation No 27/2000 on the Temporary Prohibition on Transactions in Land by Indonesian Citizens

4. Sandalwood & Environmental Law in East Timor

5. Some Observations on the Report on Research Findings & Policy Recommendations for a Legal Framework for Land Dispute Mediation in East Timor

6. An Overview of East Timor's Law No 1 of 2003 on the Juridical Regime on Immovable Properties

7. Report on Research into Adat Land Law in East Timor

8. Short Analysis of UNTAET Executive Order No 2 of 2002 on the Decriminalisation of Defamation

9. An Overview of the Constitutional Drafting Process in East Timor

10. Some Notes on East Timor Government Decree No 1/2004 on the Orthographical Standard of the Tetum Language

11. UNTAET Guidelines for the Administration of Public & Abandoned Property by District Administrations

12. Tara Bandu: The Adat Concept of the Environment in East Timor

13. Finding Ways of Resolving Land Problems in East Timor